Website Update and Newsletter

I just overhauled my website and made it more streamlined and focused in its nature.

It hopefully will work a little better on mobile devices. And, I have plans to have a mirror site set up soon that will be designed specifically for mobile devices.

I’m also starting a bimonthly newsletter that will offer content that will have announcements of new paintings before anywhere else, collector tips, awesome art quotes, and other content that won’t be featured on the blog or website.

Please sign up for the newsletter by going here.

If there are any improvements that need to be made, or cool ideas, please let me know!

The Plein Air Sketch, Train Edition

It was a windy day and busy with trains. An appointment was pending, and time was short, but I was okay with that. It was time enough for a plein air sketch.

Completing a painting while outside isn’t always possible but don’t let that stop you from going out. The best way to deal with a short outdoor painting session is change your goal of what you want to accomplish.

Think of your painting as a sketch and not a finished work. In a sketch you usually are working on one or two specific ideas and you let everything else become secondary.

bridge plein air sketch
Bridge Plein Air Sketch oil 6×8

In this sketch I was mainly concerned with composition and noting the colors. You can see that I didn’t even bother putting in the double lines of the tracks as I was focused on their direction and color.

A good way to manage your time when it it limited is to use a large brush, maybe even one you might consider insanely large that you would normally never use for that size of panel.

Another way to be prepared when your day off turns into an hour off, is to always carry more than one size of panel with you. That way you can switch to something smaller and not waste the time you do have.

The next time you get caught in a time trap, don’t despair, sketch!

Paintings Need Support Too: Paper, Metal, and Glass

Paper is an acceptable support for most mediums including oil paint as long as good preparation methods are used. Paper can be made of all kinds of fibers, but the two main materials are wood cellulose and cotton. Paper manufacturing isn’t regulated so there is no standard to judge them by, but the top manufacturers have reputations to keep and will tell you the features of their paper.

For wet mediums like paint, cotton paper is the better choice as most cotton papers are acid free and tend to be thicker than cellulose. Cotton paper also mimics canvas to a certain degree since they are made out of the same thing, and you can expect a similar longevity. The best way to paint with oils on paper would be to mount the paper to a wooden panel, such as hardboard, and then size the paper and cover it with a ground. Watercolor or acrylics can be used directly on the paper, but you will get better results if watercolor paper is used since they have a thin size applied to them already.

Paper that is not acid free shouldn’t be considered for any work that you want to last as non-acid free paper will yellow and become brittle over time. A paper that is acid free and also buffered buys extra insurance since the buffering means the paper is slightly alkaline and will counter any small amounts of acid that come in contact with it.

Obviously, some of the biggest problems with paper as a support is that it can wrinkle, crease, and tear. Storing the paper in flat files will help with this, but mounting paper is probably the best way to prevent the problems. Also, paper will expand and contract with moisture just like any natural material, so for oil paint is has all of the same negatives as a natural cloth support.


Metal has been used for hundreds of years for paintings, but because it is relatively expensive and heavy it doesn’t see a wide use. Paintings of the Old Masters on copper are some of the most well preserved in the world with little or no cracking. Copper and aluminum have similar expansion and contraction coefficients as oil paint and aluminum is nearly identical with acrylic paint.

Some modern supports use sheets of aluminum sandwiched to a plastic core and are very good, but their price is still more expensive than wood, or cloth supports.

Thin metal supports should be avoided as the metal can easily be bent cracking the paint or even putting a permanent crease in the support which would transfer to the painting.


Glass would seem like an ideal support as it is smooth, rigid, doesn’t rot or expand or contract with air born moisture, but it’s fragile nature keeps it from being widely used. Also, some paint won’t stick well to glass and over time the painting could come loose.

Other Supports

As time goes on new supports are coming onto the market with both good an bad characteristics. Unfortunately, there is no way for me to cover all of them so the best way to choose would be to research them yourself based on the particular needs of your chosen medium. A great place to do that is

Paintings Need Support Too: Wood and Wood Products

Fayum boy 2nd century encaustic on wood panel
Fayum boy 2nd century encaustic on wood panel

Solid Wood

Wood has been used for centuries as a support for paintings with some good and not so good results. Wood naturally expands and contracts with moisture changes in the air, usually across the grain. This can lead to major cracks developing even to the point where the painting is no longer in one piece, as you can see in the picture above.

If wood is used it should be a close grained wood, and preferable a hardwood like poplar, birch, walnut, etc. Oak tends to have open grain and requires many layers of ground to fill them in, even though it was the most popular wood used in the past. Also, it is preferred that the panel be cut across the grain from heartwood to minimize expansion or contraction.

Even with precautions, including climate controlled environments, solid wood panels will have problems down the road. Many paintings on wood from the past are being transferred to more stable supports where possible, but since we have better options now solid wood panels should be avoided if there is not some compelling reason for using them.


Plywood is a much more stable support than a solid wood panel and is a good choice for a support. Plywood is a series of thin wood veneers glued together with the grain of each successive layer going in the opposite direction. Since wood tends to expand in only one direction, across the grain, the different layers pull against each other preventing the plywood from expanding or contracting much.

But all plywoods are not equal and lower quality or construction grade plywood should be avoided since the glue holding the layers together may not last as long and the support may fall apart. A cabinet grade plywood should be used for the best longevity as they are expected to last for many years and the wood used in them is a higher quality. Marine plywood should be avoided as chemicals are often sprayed onto the wood veneers to make them water resistant, but the chemicals could react with the size, ground, and paint of the painting preventing proper adhesion or other unpredictable results.

As with solid wood panels a hardwood plywood with close grain should be used. The surface veneers should be significantly thicker than several sheets of paper, especially if the laminate glue does fail and your painting has to be transferred to another support.


Hardboard is made up of millions of tiny wood particles that are compressed and are held together by either the natural lignan in the wood or by a resin. Hardboard has two main varieties, untempered which is held together with lignan and tempered which is held together by resin. Because of its density and multiple directions of the fibers, hardboard is less likely to expand or contract with fluctuations in moisture.

Artist’s were cautioned against using tempered hardboard since it used to be made with large amounts of oil, but with modern manufacturing techniques if oil is used at all a light sanding before sizing and applying the ground will take care of it. Also tempered hardboard is stronger and lasts longer than untempered since the natural lignan that holds untempered hardboard together will break down over time, and is more hydrophilic.

The question of which to use is becoming a moot question as untempered hardboard is becoming rare, leaving tempered hardboard as all that is available.


MDF, or medium density fiberboard is a compressed mat of saw dust that is held together with glue or resin. Due to the manufacturing process MDF usually has a smooth and hard outer surface with a comparatively softer less dense inner core.This is a concern for some artists as the inner core can absorb moisture, but this can be mitigated to some extent by painting the ground on both faces and edges.

Since MDF is softer than hardboard it is not recommended as highly, but it is still an acceptable surface for a painting.

General Concerns for Wooden Supports

All wood based supports will benefit from perimeter cradling and cross bracing on the back to prevent the panel from warping over time. It is recommended that anything 1/8 inch thick and over 12 inches square be braced by the addition of good wood strips glued to the back, except for a solid wood panel which would need a special bracing system. Gluing thinner panels to thicker plywood would also serve as a good bracing system.

If a panel is small, applying the ground to the back of the panel is a good practice as the pull of the dry ground will be countered by the same pull on the back. If you don’t want to use an expensive ground on the back, left over commercial household paint can also be used. But if a panel is cradled and braced, applying ground or paint to the back of the panel is not necessary.

Tomorrow we’ll get to paper, and hopefully also cover some of the more unusual supports.